HUBUNGAN GENETIK DAN PSIKOLOGIS DENGAN KEJADIAN DEPRESI PADA REMAJA

Genetic and Psychological Relationship with the Depression Event in Adolescents

  • Lidya Isnaini Nuriyah Lidya Jurnal
  • Ayik Mirayanti Mandagi
  • Xindy Imey Pratiwi
Keywords: Genetik, Depresi, Remaja, Pandemi, COVID-19

Abstract

ABSTRACT
Depression is one of the most common types of mental disorders that can negatively affect a person's feelings, ways of thinking, and acting so that severe ones can lead to suicide. Depression's caused by various factors, which are genetic and psychological. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between genetic (gender and genetic history) and psychological (social support and psychosocial conditions) with the incidence of depression in adolescents (case study of XY High School students, Jember Regency). This research is an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional method. The sample in this study was 158 respondents who were taken using the simple random sampling method. Data were collected online with the Social Provisions Scale (SPS), Youth Pediatric Symptom-17 (Y PSC-17), and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) instruments. The research data were analyzed using the Spearman Correlation Test. The results showed that there was no relationship between genetics which consisted of gender variable (p value = 0.958) and heredity history variable (p value = 0.061) with the incidence of depression in adolescents. While there is a relationship between psychology which consists of social support variables (p value = 0.003) and psychosocial condition variables (p value = 0.000) with the incidence of depression in adolescents. The results of this study can be used as a basis for making preventive, promotive, and rehabilitative efforts regarding depression in adolescents and for further research.
Keywords: Depression, Genetic, Psychological, Adolescents.

ABSTRAK
Depresi adalah salah satu jenis gangguan mental paling umum terjadi, secara negatif mampu memengaruhi perasaan, cara berpikir dan bertindak seseorang sehingga pada tingkatan parah mampu menyebabkan bunuh diri. Depresi disebabkan oleh berbagai faktor, salah satunya adalah genetik dan psikologis. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui hubungan genetik (jenis kelamin dan riwayat keturunan) dan psikologis (dukungan sosial dan kondisi psikososial) dengan kejadian depresi pada remaja (studi kasus siswa SMA XY Kabupaten Jember). Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional analitik dengan metode cross-sectional. Sampel dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 158 responden yang diambil menggunakan metode simple random sampling. Data diambil secara daring dengan instrumen Social Provisions Scale (SPS), Youth Pediatric Symptom-17 (Y PSC-17) dan Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Data penelitian ini dianalisis menggunakan Uji Korelasi Spearman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan antara genetik yang terdiri dari variabel jenis kelamin (p value = 0.958) dan variabel riwayat keturunan (p value = 0.061) dengan kejadian depresi pada remaja. Sedangkan terdapat hubungan antara psikologis yang terdiri dari variabel dukungan sosial (p value = 0.003) dan variabel kondisi psikososial (p value = 0.000) dengan kejadian depresi pada remaja. Hasil penelitian ini dapat dijadikan dasar untuk pembuatan upaya preventif, promotif dan rehabilitatif perihal masalah depresi pada remaja serta menjadi landasan untuk penelitian lebih lanjut.
Kata Kunci: Depresi, Genetik, Psikologis, Remaja.

References

Adhikari, S. P., Meng, S., Wu, Y. J., Mao, Y. P., Ye, R. X., Wang, Q. Z., Sun, C., Sylvia, S., Rozelle, S., Raat, H., & Zhou, H. (2020). Epidemiology, Causes, Clinical Manifestation And Diagnosis, Prevention And Control Of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) During The Early Outbreak Period: A Scoping Review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9(1), 1–12.

Azzahro, E. A., Dian, J., Sari, E., Masyarakat, F. K., Epidemologi, D., Kesehatan, F., & February, F. (2021). Faktor Psikososial Dengan Kejadian Depresi Pada Remaja (Studi pada Siswa Kelas 12 SMA XY Jember) Psychosocial Factors with The Incidence of Depression in Adolescents (Study at 12th Grade XY High Schools Students in Jember). 2655, 69–77.

Badan Narkotika Nasional Republik Indonesia. (2019). Penggunaan Narkotika di Kalangan Remaja Meningkat. https://bnn.go.id/.

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2014). Data Remaja Teridentifikasi Depresi. www.bps.go.id.

Bintang, A. Z., & Mandagi, A. M. (2021). Kejadian Depresi Pada Remaja Menurut Dukungan Sosial Di Kabupaten Jember. Journal of Community Mental Health and Public Policy, 3(2), 92–101.

Brogan, K. (2014). How Inflammation and Depression Gave Birth to New Medicine. https://kellybroganmd.com/.

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The Psychological Impact Of Quarantine And How To Reduce It: Rapid Review Of The Evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912–920.

Chiu, C.-Y., Motl, R. W., & Ditchman, N. (2016). Validation of the Social Provisions Scale in people with multiple sclerosis. Rehabilitation Psychology, 61(3), 297–307.

Cornine, A. (2020). Reducing Nursing Student Anxiety in the Clinical Setting: An Integrative Review. Nursing Education Perspectives, 41(4), 229–234.

Danarti, N. K., Sugiarto, A., & Sunarko. (2018). Pengaruh Expressive Writing Therapy Terhadap Penurunan Depresi, Cemas, dan Stres. Journal Ilmu Keperawatan Jiwa, 1(1), 48–61.

De Olivera F, Abrantes L, Martins P, Bezerra C, & Rolim M. (2020). Impact Of Sars-Cov-2 And Its Reverberation In Global Higher Education And Mental Health. Psychiatry Research journal; 288: 1-2. January.

Dianovinina, K. (2018). Depresi pada Remaja: Gejala dan Permasalahannya. Journal Psikogenesis, 6(1), 69–78.

Duan, L., & Zhu, G. (2020). Psychological Interventions for People Affected by the COVID-19 Epidemic. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(4), 300–302. h

Fernandez-Pujals, A. M., Adams, M. J., Thomson, P., McKechanie, A. G., Blackwood, D. H. R., Smith, B. H., Dominiczak, A. F., Morris, A. D., Matthews, K., Campbell, A., Linksted, P., Haley, C. S., Deary, I. J., Porteous, D. J., MacIntyre, D. J., & McIntosh, A. M. (2015). Epidemiology And Heritability Of Major Depressive Disorder, Stratified By Age Of Onset, Sex, And Illness Course In Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS: SFHS). PLoS ONE, 10(11), 1–18.

Fitria, Y., & Maulidia, R. (2018). Hubungan Antara Dukungan Sosial Keluarga Dengan Depresi Pada Remaja Di Smpn Kota Malang (Relationship Between Social Support With Adolescent Depression in Junior High School at Malang). Prosiding Seminar Nasional Hasil Penelitian Dan Pengabdian Epada Masyarakat III, September, 270–276.

Florensa, Keliat, B. A., & Wardani, I. Y. (2016). Peningkatan Efikasi Diri Dan Penurunan Depresi. Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia, 19(3), 169–175.

Haryanto, Wahyuningsih, H. D., & Nandiroh, S. (2015). Sistem Deteksi Gangguan Depresi pada Anak - Anak dan Remaja. Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Industri, 14(2), 142–152.

Hasanah, U., Fitri, N. L., Supardi, S., & PH, L. (2020). Depression Among College Students Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. Jurnal Keperawatan Jiwa, 8(4), 421.

Herfinanda, R., & Kaloeti, V. S. (2021). Family Resilience during the COVID-19 Pandemic : A Systematic Literature Study : Resiliensi Keluarga selama Pandemi COVID-19 : Studi Literatur Sistematik. Proceding of Inter-Islamic University Conference on Psychology, 1(1), 1–11.

Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., Gu, X., Cheng, Z., Yu, T., Xia, J., Wei, Y., Wu, W., Xie, X., Yin, W., Li, H., Liu, M., … Cao, B. (2020). Clinical Features Of Patients Infected With 2019 Novel Coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(10223), 497–506.

Hyland, P., Shevlin, M., McBride, O., Murphy, J., Karatzias, T., Bentall, R. P., Martinez, A., & Vallières, F. (2020). Anxiety And Depression In The Republic Of Ireland During The COVID-19 Pandemic. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 142(3), 249–256.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2016). Keperawatan Jiwa. Badan Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan Sumber Daya Manusia.

Liang, L., Ren, H., Cao, R., Hu, Y., Qin, Z., Li, C., & Mei, S. (2020). The Effect of COVID-19 on Youth Mental Health. Psychiatric Quarterly, 91(3), 841–852.

Maia, B. R., & Dias, P. C. (2020). Anxiety, Depression And Stress In University Students: The Impact of COVID-19. Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas), 37, 1–8.

Marroquín, B., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2015). Emotion Regulation And Depressive Symptoms: Close Relationships As Social Context And Influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109(5), 836–855.

Marsasina, A., & Fitrikasari, A. (2016). Gambaran Dan Hubungan Tingkat Depresi Dengan Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Pada Pasien Rawat Jalan Puskesmas (Studi Deskriptif Analitik Di Puskesmas Halmahera Semarang). Jurnal Kedokteran Diponegoro, 5(4), 440–450.

Mazza, C., Ricci, E., Biondi, S., Colasanti, M., Ferracuti, S., Napoli, C., & Roma, P. (2020). A Nationwide Survey Of Psychological Distress Among Italian People During The Covid-19 Pandemic: Immediate Psychological Responses And Associated Factors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(3165), 1–14.

Meridien Research. (2021). The Genetics of Depression. meridienresearch.net.

Murphy, J. M., Bergmann, P., Chiang, C., Sturner, R., Howard, B., Abel, M. R., & Jellinek, M. (2016). The PSC-17: Subscale Scores, Reliability, And Factor Structure In A New National Sample. Pediatrics, 138(3).

National Institute of Mental Health. (2017). Major Depression. www.nimh.nih.gov.

Orth, U., Robins, R. W., Meier, L. L., & Conger, R. D. (2016). Supplemental Material for Refining the Vulnerability Model of Low Self-Esteem and Depression: Disentangling the Effects of Genuine Self-Esteem and Narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110(1), 133–149.

Praptikaningtyas, A. A. I., Wahyuni, A. A. S., & Aryani, L. N. A. (2019). Hubungan Tingkat Depresi pada Remaja dengan Prestasi Akademis Siswa SMA Negeri 4 Denpasar. Jurnal Medika Udayana, 8(7), 1–5.

Purves, K., Coleman, J., Meier, S., Rayner, C., Davis, K., Choi, S. W., Deckert, J., Gaspar, H. A., Hettema, J., Hübel, C., Mattheisen, M., Nicodemus, K., Breen, G., & Eley, T. (2019). Major Role for Common Genetic Variation in Anxiety Disorders. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, S1196.

Putri, K. F., & Tobing, D. L. (2020). Tingkat Resiliensi dengan Ide Bunuh Diri Pada Remaja. Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Keperawatan Indonesia, 10(01), 1–6.

Rahmayanti, Y. E., & Rahmawati, T. (2018). Hubungan Dukungan Keluarga Dengan Kejadian Depresi Pada Remaja Awal. Jurnal Asuhan Ibu & Anak, 3(6), 8.

Safitri, Y., & Hidayati, N. E. (2013). Hubungan Antara Pola Asuh Orang Tua Dengan Tingkat Depresi Remaja Di Smk 10 November Semarang. Jurnal Keperawatan Jiwa, 1(1), 11–17.

Sahu, P. (2020). Closure of Universities Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Impact on Education and Mental Health of Students and Academic Staff. Cureus, 2019(4).

Santoso, M. B., Siti Asiah, D. H., & Kirana, C. I. (2018). Bunuh Diri Dan Depresi Dalam Perspektif Pekerjaan Sosial. Prosiding Penelitian Dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, 4(3), 390.

Schirda, B. L., Nicholas, J. A., & Prakash, R. S. (2015). Examining The Role Of Trait Mindfulness And Emotion Regulation In Quality Of Life In Multiple Sclerosis. Health Psychology, 34(11), 1107–1115.

Shintia, & Maharani, W. (2021). Kemampuan Resiliensi Individu dalam Menghadapi Psychological Distress Siswa-Siswi SMA Jakarta di Masa Pandemi Covid-19. Prosiding Konferensi Nasional Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Indonesia, 1(1), 45–54.

Sholih, Rochani, Khairun, D. Y., & Alhakim, I. (2017). Meningkatkan Resiliensi Remaja Melalui Bibliocounseling. Jurnal Penelitian Bimbingan Dan Konseling, 2(1).

Sulistyorini, W., & Sabarisman, M. (2017). Depresi : Suatu Tinjauan Psikologis. Sosio Informa, 3(2), 153–164.

Syahputra, A., Theresa, R. M., & Bustamam, N. (2018). Hubungan Dukungan Sosial Dengan Tingkat Depresi Pada Mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Jakarta Angkatan 2018. Seminar Nasional Riset Kedokteran.

Thapar, A., Collishaw, S., Pine, D. S., & Thapar, A. K. (2012). Depression in adolescence. The Lancet, 379(9820), 1056–1067.

Uin, S., & Hidayatullah, S. (2018). Uji Validitas Konstruk Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Jurnal Pengukuran Psikologi Dan Pendidikan Indonesia, 4(1).

Vardanyan, A. (2013). Risk Factors And Prevalence Of Adolescent Depression In Yerevan, Armenia (A Cross-Sectional Study) Master of Public Health Integrating Experience Project Professional Publication.

Wahyuningsih, S., & Mamnu’ah. (2015). Hubungan Faktor Keturunan Dengan Kejadian Gangguan Jiwa Di Desa Banaran Galur Kulor Progo Yogyakarta. Electronic Theses and Disertasi STIKES Aisyiyah Yogyakarta, 1–16.

Williams, J. M. G., Crane, C., Barnhofer, T., Brennan, K., Duggan, D. S., Fennell, M. J. V., Hackmann, A., Krusche, A., Muse, K., Von Rohr, I. R., Shah, D., Crane, R. S., Eames, C., Jones, M., Radford, S., Silverton, S., Sun, Y., Weatherley-Jones, E., Whitaker, C. J., … Russell, I. T. (2014). Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy For Preventing Relapse In Recurrent Depression: A Randomized Dismantling Trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(2), 275–286.

World Health Organization. (2015). Fact Sheets: Depression. www.who.int.

Published
2021-10-11
Section
Articles